SEM is offered in conjunction with other surface analytical methods to characterise a variety of industrially relevant materials. This may include surface roughness, effect of processing on a surface, contamination identification and many others.
XPS is a powerful surface sensitive technique capable of yielding information on elemental composition, ratio of elements at a surface or sub-surface and chemical information. The technique can also be used in an imaging mode to map certain ingredients at a product surface.
Raman is a vibrational spectroscopy which can be used for both qualitative and quantitative applications and reveal additional information not always available in infra red spectroscopy. The technique is suited to depth profiling and mapping.
Surface tension, (contact angle), measurements on solid surfaces give information on the wettability of the surface. This is important in waterproofing coatings, foul release coatings and any surface treatment aimed at improving the hydrophobicity of a surface.
Infra red spectroscopy is provided in association with other techniques to elucidate the chemical nature of the sample. Infra red spectra provide a unique fingerprint for a given material.
AFM is a scanning probe microscopy technique which can provide information down to atomic resolution. Can be used to map an area in specific applications where conventional microscopy is inadequate or not product suitable.
SIMS is a technique where the outermost few layers of material are sputtered from the surface using an ion beam source and characterised in a mass spectrometer. The chemical information provided is augmented with other surface sensitive techniques to provide a detailed map of the surface composition.
Solid state NMR is a particular useful technique when dealing with intractable materials which do not lend themselves to solution NMR. Modern systems are now capable of greater resolution and have proved useful in looking at certain catalysts, silicate products and crystalline solids.